Kim Huett
MEDT 7461: Instructional Design
Professor Dawn Putney
December 5, 2010

Research Models Exploration



Note: I have removed the comparison row from each table and made a single comparison chart at the end so I can see these models side by side.





Pathways to Knowledge

Model
Name of model and people involved
Pathways to Knowledge (Follett Information Skills Model) – Marjorie Pappas and Ann Tepe
Information Sources
Where you located your information
http://www.k12.hi.us/~mkunimit/pathways.htm

http://www.intime.uni.edu/model/information/appr.html

http://www.sparkfactor.com/clients/follett/home.html
Overview of Model
Description of the basis for the model
The Pathways to Knowledge model is a six-stage model that can be used for simple or complex searching/processing tasks. As the Follet website explains, the model is like a “roadmap for navigating through the information-seeking process.” It is not necessary to follow the stages in order, or even follow all of them in a given search event. Appreciation and evaluation should be practiced throughout the process, not just during those nominal stages.
Steps in Model
Description of each step the students will follow
Appreciation—this stage encourages enjoyment of what is being sensed (whether that comes from a conversation, a book, or a television show)
Presearch—this stage seeks to connect what a learner knows to what s/he wants to know
Search—in this stage, the learner makes a search plan and identifies appropriate resources
Interpretation—in this stage, the learner makes meaning of the information; this is the hardest stage around which to design effective instruction
Communication—the learner organizes the new understandings and selects a format in which to present
Evaluation—the learner evaluates his/her progress throughout the search process as well as at the end, once a communicative product has been developed
Potential Use
Grade level and specific example of GPS that would be supported by the model
Grade 10, Spanish 2.
Students could use the model to explore alternative celebrations that occur around October 31/Nov 1 each year. The teacher/media specialist could have students write a reflective journal about their experience as a visitor to a chosen Latin American country on November 1. The journal could be written against a student-and-teacher-created rubric to encourage depth and breadth.
MLII.CU1 The students understand perspectives, practices, and products of the cultures where the target language is spoken and how they are interrelated. The students:
A. Participate in real or simulated cultural events, such as family activities and holiday celebrations.

Critical Thinking and Information Literacy Process Model

Model
Name of model and people involved
Critical Thinking and Information Literacy Process Model
Information Sources
Where you located your information
http://www.bcps.org/offices/lis/models/tips/
Overview of Model
Description of the basis for the model
This model approaches the information search as a problem to be solved, and includes a step for implementing a solution or implementing a plan of action.
Steps in Model
Description of each step the students will follow
Encountering the task—the learner finds a compelling problem to solve that warrants research
Exploring/Formulating/Questioning/Connecting—the learner identifies problems and brainstorm options, poses questions, and connects ideas to prior knowledge.
Searching/Locating—the learner identifies useful resources, makes a search plan, and evaluates throughout
Collecting/Organizing/Managing/Monitoring—the learner does more in-depth organizing, using modeling tools such as a cluster map; considers ethics
Analyzing/Evaluating/Interpreting/Inferring—the learner identifies the parts of the information and prioritizes
Synthesizing/Solving—the learner creates new meanings to address the original problem
Applying New Understanding—the learner creates an action plan, using peer-review as appropriate—to solve the problem
Communicating/Presenting/Sharing—the learner chooses a medium for communicating the new knowledge; facilitate a discussion
Reflecting/Extending—the learner assesses the process undertaken and the learner’s own thinking
Potential Use
Grade level and specific example of GPS that would be supported by the model
Spanish 2, Grade 10.
As a warm up activity, the teacher gives students a scenario with a small problem to solve. They work on it in groups of 3 per computer. Peter is a foreign exchange student on a 4-week trip to Madrid. He finds that he is immediately thrown off by the different schedule by which his host family seems to live. Students will examine the patterns of a typical madrilène family and come up with modifications to Peter’s usual American ways of living that will help him get the most out of his experience. The appointed team leader will share their group’s solution with the class.
MLII.CU1 The students understand perspectives, practices, and products of the cultures where the target language is spoken and how they are interrelated. The students:
B. Identify patterns of behavior typically associate with cultures, such as eating and shopping customs, leisure activities, and celebration of national holidays.

Flip It Model

Model
Name of model and people involved
Flip It Model – Alice Yucht
Information Sources
Where you located your information
http://www.aliceinfo.org/flipit/
Overview of Model
Description of the basis for the model
FLIP it! is "a decision-making framework that can be used for both personal and professional applications." It provides a set of "reflective questions to guide the learner throughout the information process."
Steps in Model
Description of each step the students will follow
The model is arranged as a rectangle divided into quadrants with a superimposed oval in the center, making 5 spaces. Inside the four quadrants are these categories with guiding questions in parentheses:
  • Focus--specifying (What do I really need to do or find out? How can I zoom in on the problem?)
  • Links--strategizing (How/where can I 'connect' to what will be most useful for me? What the best way for me to proceed?)
  • Input--sorting, sifting, storing (What kinds of information do I need to know? How do I keep track of what I've discovered?)
  • Payoff--solving, showing (How can I use what I've learned to best advantage? What kinds of solutions have I found for my original quest?)

In the center oval is this:
  • If/Then (What do I already know that will help me here?):
Potential Use
Grade level and specific example of GPS that would be supported by the model
Spanish 2, Grade 10.
Using the Research Activity Guide Students are assigned a country (Spanish-speaking). Their task is to determine what the most representative food and drink of the country is. Then, they need to explore its origin and history to determine why the dish holds that spot (what is it about climate, geography, tastes, and history that made this dish dominant?). For example, paella is symbolic of regions of Spain. Why is that dish eaten by the people? What are its ingredients and how has it evolved across the years? What is its origin? What makes it a uniquely Spanish dish?

MLII.CU1 The students understand perspectives, practices, and products of the cultures where the target language is spoken and how they are interrelated. The students:
C. Examine the influence of the geography of the countries studied on cultural elements such as food, clothing, dwellings, transportation, language, and art.

The Research Cycle

Model
Name of model and people involved
The Research Cycle - Jamie McKenzie.
Information Sources
Where you located your information
http://questioning.org/index2.html
http://www.fno.org/dec99/rcycle.html
Overview of Model
Description of the basis for the model
The research cycle is a model for conducting school research. It's designed to be used by "teams of students working on essential questions" and was developed by Jamie McKenzie. According to McKenzie, this model places students in the role of "information producer" rather than "information consumer." He says that what makes the model stand apart from others is its emphasis on questioning from the start. The cycle is moved through repeatedly, as suggested by the word "cycle." The reporting stages arrives after several forays through the cycle.
Steps in Model
Description of each step the students will follow
1. Clarify Question
  • expand questions--students map out their research question with subsidiary questions.
  • develop research plan--students plan their research, looking for best sources of information.
  • gather information--students should structure as they gather.
  • sort and sift--this is an even more organized step of structuring the information.
  • synthesize--students continue to rearrange and then look for patterns.
  • evaluate--at this stage, students ask if enough as been found. If so, they can move on to Reporting, and if not, it's time to go through the research cycle again.
  • revise question (steps repeat as search is refined)
  • revise plan
  • gather again
  • sort and sift again
  • synthesize
  • evaluate
2. Report
Potential Use
Grade level and specific example of GPS that would be supported by the model
7th Grade Social Studies
SS7G12 The student will analyze the diverse cultures of the people who live in Southern and Eastern Asia.
c. Evaluate how the literacy rate affects the standard of living.

The Big 6

Model
Name of model and people involved
The Big 6 – Mike Eisenberg and Robert Berkowitz
Information Sources
Where you located your information
http://www.big6.com
Overview of Model
Description of the basis for the model
The Big 6 is the most popular information seeking and processing model. According to the website, this model can handle "any problem, assignment, decision, or task." It is not necessary to go through all stages in order, but it's likely that students will progress through all in a given task.
Steps in Model
Description of each step the students will follow
1. Task Definition--students define the info problem and identify information needed
2. Information-seeking Strategies--determine possible sources and choose best
3. Location and Access--locate sources and find info within them
4. Use of Information--engage with info and pull out what is relevant
5. Synthesis--organize from multiple sources and present
6. Evaluation--judge the product and the process
Potential Use
Grade level and specific example of GPS that would be supported by the model
Grade 7 Language Arts.
I might use this graphic organizer to support the writing process using Big 6 skills.
The student produces a multi-paragraph persuasive essay that:
a. Engages the reader by establishing a context, creating a speaker’s voice, and otherwise developing reader interest.
b. States a clear position or perspective in support of a proposition or proposal.
c. Describes the points in support of the proposition, employing well-articulated, relevant evidence.
d. Excludes information and arguments that are irrelevant.
e. Creates an organizing structure appropriate to a specific purpose, audience, and context.
f. Anticipates and addresses readers’ concerns and counter-arguments.
g. Provides a sense of closure to the writing.

KidsConnect KCTools

Model
Name of model and people involved
KidsConnect KCTools
Information Sources
Where you located your information
http://www.ala.org/ala/mgrps/divs/aasl/index.cfm and then enter Kids Connect in the AASL search box in the top right corner
Overview of Model
Description of the basis for the model
This model serves as a guide to help students and teachers think about important aspects of search and information processing as they are going through the steps. It offers online tools and interactive sites to help guide and teach. It's from the AASL.
Steps in Model
Description of each step the students will follow
I Wonder--what do I want to find out? What do I already know? Has someone else researched this topic already? Am I asking a "good" question? Do I care about what I am researching?
I Find--as students locate information, they should be aware that there are more sources than Internet-based, they should consider keywords, they should learn how search engines work, and double-check information.
I Evaluate--students question the information they have found and consider issues of copyright, relevance, and the difference between fact and opinion.
I Share--Students consider what is appropriate in presenting what they have learned.
Potential Use
Grade level and specific example of GPS that would be supported by the model
7th Grade Social Studies
SS7H2 The student will analyze continuity and change in Southwest Asia (Middle East) leading to the 21st century.
c. Describe how land and religion are reasons for continuing conflicts in the Middle East.

Information Search Process

Model
Name of model and people involved
Information Search Process - Carol Collier Kuhlthau
Information Sources
Where you located your information
http://www.asis.org/Bulletin/Feb-99/kuhlthau.html
Overview of Model
Description of the basis for the model
Carol is interested in making the information search process (ISP) more user-centered. She has observed as a former high school librarian that no matter how ready and "schooled" students are in the ways of the library, there is still a great degree of confusion and disorientation when beginning a search process. She says that Bruner, Dewey, and Kelly would say this is okay, as it makes sense from the constructivist viewpoint. The problem we have today is that students also have a massive amount of information being delivered all at once. The model steps below should be thought of as "recursive" rather than "linear."
Steps in Model
Description of each step the students will follow
1. Initiation--the student becomes aware of lack of knowledge, information, or understanding needed to complete a task
2. Selection--the student identifies and selects a topic
3. Exploration--the student begins to investigate the topic to increase understanding; this is where students have a lot of issues in part because they don't know what they don't know (or need to search for)
4. Formulation--students focus topic as they understand better
5. Collection--the student collects info on focus
6. Presentation--the student presents learning at this point.
Potential Use
Grade level and specific example of GPS that would be supported by the model
US History
SSUSH2 The student will trace the ways that the economy and society of British North America developed.
c. Identify Benjamin Franklin as a symbol of social mobility and individualism.

Research Models Comparison


Pathways to Knowledge
Critical Thinking and Information Literacy Process Model
Flip It Model
The Research Cycle
Big Six
KidsConnect KCTools
Information Search Process
Steps
Appreciation—this stage encourages enjoyment of what is being sensed (whether that comes from a conversation, a book, or a television show)
Presearch—this stage seeks to connect what a learner knows to what s/he wants to know
Search—in this stage, the learner makes a search plan and identifies appropriate resources
Interpretation—in this stage, the learner makes meaning of the information; this is the hardest stage around which to design effective instruction
Communication—the learner organizes the new understandings and selects a format in which to present
Evaluation—the learner evaluates his/her progress throughout the search process as well as at the end, once a communicative product has been developed
Encountering the task—the learner finds a compelling problem to solve that warrants research
Exploring/Formulating/Questioning/Connecting—the learner identifies problems and brainstorm options, poses questions, and connects ideas to prior knowledge.
Searching/Locating—the learner identifies useful resources, makes a search plan, and evaluates throughout
Collecting/Organizing/Managing/Monitoring—the learner does more in-depth organizing, using modeling tools such as a cluster map; considers ethics
Analyzing/Evaluating/Interpreting/Inferring—the learner identifies the parts of the information and prioritizes
Synthesizing/Solving—the learner creates new meanings to address the original problem
Applying New Understanding—the learner creates an action plan, using peer-review as appropriate—to solve the problem
Communicating/Presenting/Sharing—the learner chooses a medium for communicating the new knowledge; facilitate a discussion
Reflecting/Extending—the learner assesses the process undertaken and the learner’s own thinking
The model is arranged as a rectangle divided into quadrants with a superimposed oval in the center, making 5 spaces. Inside the four quadrants are these categories with guiding questions in parentheses:
  • Focus--specifying (What do I really need to do or find out? How can I zoom in on the problem?)
  • Links--strategizing (How/where can I 'connect' to what will be most useful for me? What the best way for me to proceed?)
  • Input--sorting, sifting, storing (What kinds of information do I need to know? How do I keep track of what I've discovered?)
  • Payoff--solving, showing (How can I use what I've learned to best advantage? What kinds of solutions have I found for my original quest?)

In the center oval is this:
  • If/Then (What do I already know that will help me here?):
1. Clarify Question
  • expand questions--students map out their research question with subsidiary questions.
  • develop research plan--students plan their research, looking for best sources of information.
  • gather information--students should structure as they gather.
  • sort and sift--this is an even more organized step of structuring the information.
  • synthesize--students continue to rearrange and then look for patterns.
  • evaluate--at this stage, students ask if enough as been found. If so, they can move on to Reporting, and if not, it's time to go through the research cycle again.
  • revise question
  • revise plan
  • gather again
  • sort and sift again
  • synthesize
  • evaluate
2. Report
1. Task Definition--students define the info problem and identify information needed
2. Information-seeking Strategies--determine possible sources and choose best
3. Location and Access--locate sources and find info within them
4. Use of Information--engage with info and pull out what is relevant
5. Synthesis--organize from multiple sources and present
6. Evaluation--judge the product and the process
I Wonder--what do I want to find out? What do I already know? Has someone else researched this topic already? Am I asking a "good" question? Do I care about what I am researching?
I Find--as students locate information, they should be aware that there are more sources than Internet-based, they should consider keywords, they should learn how search engines work, and double-check information.
I Evaluate--students question the information they have found and consider issues of copyright, relevance, and the difference between fact and opinion.
I Share--Students consider what is appropriate in presenting what they have learned.
1. Initiation--the student becomes aware of lack of knowledge, information, or understanding needed to complete a task
2. Selection--the student identifies and selects a topic
3. Exploration--the student begins to investigate the topic to increase understanding; this is where students have a lot of issues in part because they don't know what they don't know (or need to search for)
4. Formulation--students focus topic as they understand better
5. Collection--the student collects info on focus
6. Presentation--the student presents learning at this point.
Grade Level
k-12 with a 4-8 preference
K-12 with a 10-12 preference
K-12
K-12
K-12
K-12, with a 2-5 preference

It still could be used for certain pops at the higher level.
K-12
Ease of Use
This model would be good for upper elementary to early high school students.
This is a weighty model. In fact, so weighty that I look at it as a great model for my own nearly-doctoral-level research efforts. I think this model would serve me well. High school students, properly guided, could use this model. And, with simplification, any level could use it. However, I would recommend using a model such as Pathways to Knowledge or Flip IT for younger kids (K-middle).
I think this model would be easy to use and teach and reinforce. As students get older and need more specific guidance, they can look to more detailed models such as the Critical Thinking and Literacy Process Model.
With teacher guidance, this model is pretty simple, although it doesn't appear that way at first. The steps make sense, and I like the way in which it emphasizes revision of the research question, which is a good thing to learn, whether you are in 1st grade or doctoral studies.
I like the apparent orderliness of this model, but I need more practice using it. I need to examine the lessons on line.
This is a great guide for teachers who want to know what some good practices and tools for guiding students through information literacy activities. I think this is more appropriate to elementary students (3rd+) than, say, the Critical Thinking.
This model is similar to the others, but the article in which it was presented provides an excellent framework to help teachers better understand a lot of the most common issues related to information literacy activities and ways to circumvent them.

Final Thoughts

These models represent a lot of what school library media specialists are supposed to teach their students. It becomes clear to me that without clear planning and coordination WITH teachers in the school, the 15-30 minutes per week a student learns these concepts may get lost. Let me just use myself as an example. Let's say I attend Woody Elementary and went to the library once each week for 30 minutes of library skills lessons, and the SLMS has created a year-long curriculum plan for teaching me the Pathways to Knowledge model, for instance. I believe that the fragmented nature of the lessons would not coalesce into a model that I could take with me at the end of that school year. I would have some ideas for things you do in the media center, but I am not sure I would have the confidence in my ability to conduct research at my own level. These models need to be better integrated into daily instruction, which I realize is one of the lessons of this course. But I can see why. It would be very difficult for (some) learners to grasp such a concept in all the hubbub and fragmentation. This would vary widely by school, of course!